The Schedule of Recent Life Experiences or Social Readjustment Scale, invented by Holmes and Rahe, records the stress value of life changes. It is used by American insurance companies to estimate the amount of stress an individual has experienced in the previous year before deciding whether to provide medical insurance cover. The greater the number of points accrued the greater the risk of a serious health problem and the higher the medical insurance premium. There is no difference between happy and sad events for these purposes - they each carry their stress points. At the top of the scale is the death of a spouse which rates 100. Retirement is worth 45 which is below marriage = 50 and Divorce = 73, but above pregnancy which is worth 40. At the bottom is the Christmas season which rates 12 and holidays which rate 13.
HOLMES-RAHE SCALE (Holmes and Rahe 1967.)
COPING WITH CHANGE.
The Coping with Change Model, was developed for the former UK Health Education Authority and analyses the emotional content of a life event and provides an insight in to what is occurring during the experience.
An individual can experience all or some emotions with varying intensity. The length of time for which they are felt also varies from individual to individual. Most common feelings are shock, euphoria, anger, guilt and self doubt. These feelings usually pass with time but in some circumstances self doubt can lead to depression. Particular emphasis is paid to the later phases of gradual acceptance and letting go. Letting go is essential before the next phase of life can progress. Letting go, after retirement, can be particularly difficult for those who have always been employed and have established their lives around work.
Shock Transition complete
Searching Letting go
Guilt Gradual acceptance
The Transition Model was created by William Bridges after working with people who experienced difficulty with divorce, redundancy, career change, etc. His model demonstrates how a Life Event starts with an Ending which is also an opportunity.
It moves through a period of Neutrality which is an unproductive period but allows time for recuperation and reassessment while the inner self adjusts to the new circumstances. The Beginning is the start of new activity after the self has overcome the effects of the Life Event. You can find a detailed analysis of the Transition process on: www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/PUBS/CONSUMER/10214.html
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